International Factor in the Tactics of Crushing of Polish January Uprising (1863-1864) by the Russian Empire
Difficult socio-political situation in which the Russian autocracy appeared to be after the signing of the Peace Treaty in Paris on the results of the Crimean War is considered. The Russian general public subjected to sharp criticism its own government, exposing the everlasting shortcomings of imperial policy. The same criticism was expressed by the European press. That made the tsarism to begin reformation in the empire.
The Polish issue also arose among the sorest points. Gentry initially sought to renew its own privileges, and subsequently demanded the restoration of statehood. The government conceded, though did it extremely slowly and reluctantly, so in the terms of general liberalization of the press it was interpreted as an insult, and consequently the level of claims constantly increased.
Another reason for the increasing activity of the Poles was the public opinion of the Western Europe countries, which at that time could not be ignored by the certain governments, and therefore, the latter, together with their own public and the national press, demanded that the autocracy meet the claims of the Poles. However, such officially-diplomatic position was not followed by any real actions, because of the internal contradictions of interests of anti-Russian coalitionists.
At the same time, such activity of the Europeans was taken by the Russians as a menace of a new war and awakened their national-patriotic, proper imperial frames of mind. The official Russian press provided an identity in the perception of the concepts of the homeland and the empire, and therefore all those who criticized the domestic authorities, that time started to protect them.