Formation and Development of Zemstvo Medicine in Kremenchug County in the Second Half of the XIX Century
The paper is devoted to the theme of the development of zemstvo medicine in Kremenchug county in the second half of the 19th century. The purpose of the publication is to highlight the activities of local self-government bodies in the sphere of the development of medical institutions in our region. It is based on a wide range of sources: a systematic archive of county zemstvo reports, materials from periodicals, memoirs of doctors. The authors reconstructed the work of zemstvo institutions during the second half of the XIX century, decade after decade, pointing to the positive facts and disadvantages.
Speaking about the activities of zemstvos in the 60-70s of the XIX century, the appearance in the villages of certified medical staff should be mentioned, and among the shortcomings were a certain chaos in their activities, the inconsistency of their policies, due to the existence of relics of serfdom, and uneven funding. That meant reducing the number of doctors, and orientation on medical assistants (so called «peasant doctors», according to some councilors, which the people trusted more than professional doctors).
In the 80s, positive changes took place in the activities of the zemstvo, in particular the creation of medical centers, the increase in the number of zemstvo doctors, and the steady growth of funds for financing medical sector, which in that period came to the first place in the zemstvo budget. Special attention is paid to the struggle in the county with epidemics in particular with diphtheria and scarlet fever, and the measures taken by the zemstvos in this case are considered. The work of zemstvo doctors and medical assistants on the provision of medical care to the population of the county is noted.
Separately, the authors mention the activity of the famous physician O. Bogaevskyi, who for a long time was the head of the zemstvo province hospital, headed the nursing and obstetric school. At the same time, the weak points of certain doctors work have also been mentioned. The conclusions emphasize, in general, the positive effect of the activity of the zemstvo on the provision of medical care to the population, in particular on reducing mortality in the county, especially among children. As a recommendation, it is suggested to take today, as the example, the experience of zemstvos in the organization of medical care to the population.