Modernization of Argentina under the Rule of Liberal Governments during 1862-1880
The reformative activity of Argentine liberal presidents Bartolomé Mitre, Domingo Sarmiento and Nicolas Avelande, who sequentially occupied the presidency during 1862-1880 are analyzed in the paper. The successful modernization measures in the fields of reforming the army and the legislative system, in the development of financial, educational and scientific institutions, transport and communications, and the creation of a favorable immigration atmosphere is reviewed. It is asserted that these measures brought Argentina closer to the leading countries of the world and contributed to its prosperity over the following decades.
The introduction of new technologies in agriculture and improved products transportation conditions strengthened Argentina’s position on the international food export market. Economic prosperity favoured the influx of European immigrants, which became an additional factor of economic development.
The increase of the amount of primary and secondary educational institutions positively influenced Argentina’s political, technological and economic development in the future.
At the same time, among unsuccessful measures were the introduction of a free market policy, low rates of import duties, which slowed the development of industry in Argentina. The practice of large foreign loans, which resulted in the financial crisis and the entry of the country into a money pit also had a negative influence. Those negative factors, in turn, led to the country's failure to rise above the level of the supplier of agricultural raw materials on the world market. The issues of great social differentiation also remained unresolved. Listed problems in the long run laid the foundations of crisis phenomena.