Constructional Features and Character of Structure № 21 of Ancient Settlement Dykyi Sad
The paper reveals the architectural features of the structure № 21 of the ancient settlement Dykyi Sad (Wild Garden), determines the nature of the internal filling of the pits, analyzes material objects (ceramic pottery, objects made of clay, stone, horn, and bronze). The structure was located along the defense moat of the «citadel», adjacent to the western part to the structure № 13, and was oriented almost to the cardinal points (9,0 х7,0 m with a deepening 0,4-0,5 m to the subsoil). The walls of the structure were wattle and daub mixed with medium and fine limestone. The southern wall was made of big pieces of limestone (in the eastern part it was a basement, in the western part it was coated). It should be noted separately that in the structure’s filling (floor level) the large number (more than 100 fragments) of tool marked horns of deer, goats, and saigas were found.
At the floor level of the structure, 22 pits for different purposes (pole, utility, utility and production, utility and ritual) were found.
A special place in the research takes the analysis of the assemblage of material objects. Among plates and dishes predominate closed pottery (pots of different types, jar-like pots, goblets, bailers and large earthenware pots (korchagas)) with a variety of ornaments. Open dishes are represented with bowls and flat roasters. It is ascertained that such pottery was found in the materials of settlements of the Belozersk period of the North-Western Black Sea.
Other artifacts are represented with produced items made of horn, animal bones, clay and stone (cheek-pieces made of horn, stone pestles and grinders, stone objects of the anthropomorphic form).
It is noted that the constructional features of the structure, the nature of the pits, the found artifacts and ecofacts, allow assuming that the structure № 21 was a utility and production workshop with a complex system of multifunctional pits. Such buildings were typical for the sites of the North-Western Black Sea region of the Late and Final Bronze Age.
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