Peculiarities of Canadian Immigration Policy in 2006-2012
The paper analyzes some features of the Canadian immigration policy in 2006-2012. It was during that period that the Canadian policy of «open arms» underwent significant changes, changing the focal point of its further development. An important impetus to those processes was the Conservative Party of Canada coming to power and the review of the new federal government, headed by Stephen Harper, activity priorities. Mainly, attention was focused on focal points of the Conservative Cabinet activity.
The first was to establish the priority of ensuring the economic needs of Canada by changing the immigration law. To provide that, various initiatives were introduced. Among them were both complex and specific. Some of them were aimed at attracting to the Canadian labor market persons who were in Canada on temporary worker programs. Others encouraged business people to immigrate. An important component of those programs was the involvement of economic immigrants who did not require a significant/full public financial support. Thus, applicants with experience in living and working in Canada did not need social services and adaptation programs. And that, in turn, reduced the budget expenditures of the state.
The second focal point of the activity was the introducing of legislative initiatives aimed at gradual limiting the opportunities of «unwanted» and «dangerous» immigrants coming to Canada. The procedures of that focal point were formally aimed at counteracting various violations – illegal immigration, exploitation, and trafficking in people, the submission of «false refugees», etc. Accordingly, the imposed interdictions and restrictions regarded persons somehow connected with those violations. The main category of «dangerous» immigrants was illegal immigrants and other persons involved in that process. Just against that group the most severe legal restrictions, sentences, and some aggravating factors were introduced. The introduction of such rigid regulations was preceded by the widening of the definition «people smuggling» by the conservative government. Thus, the illegal arrival to Canada was regarded as a criminal activity – people smuggling. Another unprofitable category of immigrants was refugees. To constrain the applicants of that group, a list of «Designated Countries of Origin» – unsafe countries, the natives of which lost the right to apply for the status of a humanitarian immigrant, was introduced. In addition, for the same purpose, the unfavorable changes in the procedure of proceeding refugees’ applications were made. Lastly, restrictive legislative initiatives were characterized by the enhancement of the Minister of Immigration and immigration officials rights, for providing additional opportunities to reject the applicants.
It has been concluded that the measures of both policy focal points concerning immigrants in the specified period were the parts of the same process. After all, the introduction of priority programs of economic immigration was accompanied by the reduction of opportunities for other, economically unprofitable groups of immigrants.
Barnett, L. (2007, June 5). Legislative Summary of Bill C-57: An Act to Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Publication No. LS-557E). Retrieved from https://lop.parl.ca/staticfiles/PublicWebsite/Home/ResearchPublications/LegislativeSummaries/PDF/39-1/c57-e.pdf [in English].
Bérchard, J. & Elgersma, S. (2012, February 29). Legislative Summary of Bill C-31: An Act to Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Balanced Refugee Reform Act, the Marine Transportation Security Act and the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Act (Publication No. 41-1-C31-E). Retrieved from https://lop.parl.ca/staticfiles/PublicWebsite/Home/ResearchPublications/LegislativeSummaries/PDF/41-1/c31-e.pdf [in English].
Bérchard, J. (2011, August 30). Legislative Summary of Bill C-4: An Act to Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Balanced Refugee Reform Act and the Marine transportation Security Act. (Publication No. 41-1-C4-E). Retrieved from https://lop.parl.ca/staticfiles/PublicWebsite/Home/ResearchPublications/LegislativeSummaries/PDF/41-1/c4-e.pdf [in English].
Burtseva, M. (2016). Canadian Immigration and Multiculturalism Politics: Few Generalizations about Peculiarities in 1960-s – 2010-s. Elektronnyi istorychnyi zhurnal Scriptorium nostrum, 2 (5), 289-304 [in English].
Burtseva, M. (2017). The Liberalization of Canadian Immigration Policy (1945-1976). Codrul Cosminului Journal, XXIII (1), 203-220 [in English].
Burtseva, M. (2017). The Specifics of Post-War Canadian Immigration Policy (1945-1957). Historia i Polityka: Historia Czasopisma, 22 (29), 69-86 [in English].
Burtseva, M. (2017). Zakon pro immihratsiiu 1976 r. ta pochatok novoi ery derzhavnoi polityky Kanady [Immigration act 1976 and the beginning of the new era of Canadian state policy]. Amerykanska istoriia ta polityka: naukovyi zhurnal, 4, 227-236 [in Ukrainian].
Burtseva, M. (2018). Vplyv podii 9/11 2001 r. u SShA na zminy v immihratsiinii politytsi Kanady [The Impact of 9/11 Events in the USA on the changes in Canadian immigration policy]. Naukovi Pratsi Istorychnoho Fakultetu Zaporizkoho Natsionalnoho Universytetu, 51, 294-298 [in Ukrainian].
Conrad, M.A. (2012). Concise History of Canada. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi: Cambridge University Press [in English].
Knowles, V. (2016). Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1540-2015. Toronto, High Town, Tonawanda: Dundurn Press [in English].
Kozachuk, O. (2016). Mizhetnichna vzaiemodiia, immihratsiia ta prava liudyny v Kanadi [Interethnic Interaction, Immigration and Human Rights in Canada]. In Aktualni problemy zovnishnoi polityky Ukrainy: Materialy Х Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii studentiv ta molodykh vchenykh (pp. 183-186). Chernivtsi [in Ukrainian].
Kozachuk, O. (2017). Immihratsiia kytaitsiv do Kanady: sproba otsinky transformatsii polityky [Chinese immigration to Canada: the attempt to assess the transformation of politics]. Aktualni problemy zovnishnoi polityky Ukrainy: Materialy XI Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii studentiv ta molodykh vchenykh (pp. 160-163). Chernivtsi [in Ukrainian].
Kozachuk, O. (2018). Natsionalne pytannia u vnutrishnii politytsi SShA ta Kanady: porivnialnyi analiz [National issue in domestic politics of the USA and Canada: comparative analysis]. Chernivtsi: Tekhnodruk [in Ukrainian].
Lupul, T.Ya. (2007). Immihratsiia yak faktor kryzy natsionalnoi identychnosti v Zakhidnii Yevropi ta Pivnichnii Amerytsi (na prykladi Frantsii, SShA, Kanady) [Immigration as the crisis factor of the national identity in Western Europe and Northern America (through the example of France, the USA and Canada)]. Naukovyi visnyk Chernivetskoho universytetu: Zbirnyk naukovykh statei. Istoriia. Politychni nauky. Mizhnarodni vidnosyny, 325-326, 76-80 [in Ukrainian].
Lupul, T.Ya. (2008). Novi etnosotsialni tendentsii v kanadskykh provintsiiakh ta terytoriiakh pid vplyvom immihratsii 1990-kh rokiv [New ethnic and social trends in Canadian provinces and territories under the influence of immigration in 1990s]. Visnyk Odeskoho natsionalnoho universytetu: Sotsiolohiia i politychni nauky, №18 (74), 83-94 [in Ukrainian].
Lupul, T.Ya. (2008). Vplyv immihratsii 1990-kh rokiv na transformatsiiu etnokulturnoho skladu naselennia kanadskoi federatsii (analiz perepysu 2001 roku) [The influence of the process of immigration in 1990s to the transformation of ethnocultural structure of population of the Canadian Federation (the analyze of the population census of 2001)]. Visnyk Odeskoho natsionalnoho universytetu: Sotsiolohiia i politychni nauky, 13 (69), 124-134 [in Ukrainian].
Lupul, T.Ya. (2010). Suchasna immihratsiia yak strukturnyi komponent formuvannia politychnoi natsii v Kanadi [Modern immigration as the structural component of creating political nation in Canada]. Politolohichni ta sotsiolohichni studii: Zbirnyk naukovykh prats, XI, 494-506 [in Ukrainian].
Reitz, J.G. (2014). Multiculturalism Policies and Popular Multiculturalism in Development of Canadian Immigration. In J. Jedwab (Ed.), The Multiculturalism Question: Debating Identity in 21st Century (pp. 107-126). Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press [in English].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.