The Impact of International Relations on the Development and Collapse of the Last Colonial Empire in Europe

Keywords: salazarism, «Carnation Revolution», decolonization, democracy

Abstract

The paper shows that at the beginning of the 20th century the Portuguese colonial empire was actually a satellite of Britain. As a result of the 1910 revolution, the first republic was established. During the 16 years of its existence, 9 presidents, 44 prime ministers and 3 dictators changed, there were 25 uprisings, etc. The disorder contributed to the establishment of a military dictatorship in 1926. The military invited professor A. Salazar to overcome the crisis. He carried out successful reforms and founded the «New State» with an authoritarian regime. It was based on the ideology of corporatism and lusotropicalism.

The UK-oriented foreign policy provided a comfortable international position for the country during the interwar period, neutrality during the Second World War and cooperation with the anti-Hitler coalition made it possible to preserve colonies and become a founding member of NATO.

The disagreement with decolonization and the beginning of the colonial wars in 1961 led to the international isolation of Portugal, a deep economic crisis, and finally to a military coup on April 25, 1974, which turned into democratic «Carnation Revolution», establishing of democracy in the country and giving independence to the former colonies.

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Published
05.10.2019
Section
World History and International Relations