The Development of the Transatlantic Relations at John Kennedy’s Administration
The American-European relations during John F. Kennedy’s presidency, their basics and development are studied in the paper. It is stated that as opposed to D. Eisenhower who considered strong Europe to be more equitable to the American national interests, J. Kennedy did not consider the European line of foreign policy as a prior. It is noted that in the context of the European policy, great attention was paid to the counteraction of communism and the development of relations with Great Britain, Germany, and France as the partners in NATO.
The Atlantic Community or «Grand Design» became a political initiative of the United States that contemplated the entry of Great Britain to the European Common Market. The European states had to identify themselves as the center of military integration and to increase their expenses on the integration processes. The idea of «Grand Design» was developed to create a common reliable ally on the European continent, which had to help the USA and support its policy.
In effect, this initiative of J. Kennedy’s administration became key for transatlantic unity. At the same time, it is proved that France most resolutely opposed the entry of Great Britain to the Common Market because of the prospects of Anglo-Saxon influence spreading on the continent. The policy of general Ch. de Gaulle became the main counteraction to the United States in Europe where France intended to secure superiority.
The fact that J. Kennedy’s administration was guided by the concept of liberalism in the issues of foreign policy formation is pointed out in the paper. The U.S. President called the UN the last and the best hope in the world in which military instruments of influence advance the diplomatic ones. J. Kennedy resolutely opposed nuclear tests, however, he did not refuse the doctrine of flexible reaction, which granted the right of the USA to control and direct the nuclear forces during the crisis, depending on the military situation. Thus, the dualistic character of J. Kennedy’s administration policy and the actual course towards preserving the leading position in the world and the intention to control the policy of potential partners can be retraced.
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