Civic Education: Soviet Experience

Keywords: communism education, political socialization, civic duty, communism ideology, Soviet propaganda

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the civic (communist) education of Soviet citizens in Soviet Ukraine of the second half of the 20th century. The process of formation of social and political values and aims system providing the legitimacy of the Party and Soviet regime is analyzed in the paper.
Civic education took place during the process of socialization of the individual through the system of social relations and education. Political socialization was directed by the Party and state bodies, had a communist-oriented outlook and was practically reduced to ideological education. Formation of communist consciousness began in kindergarten, continued in the first classes of «Little Octobrists», pioneer detachments, Komsomol camps.
The main task of the Soviet school was to impart the sense of civic duty of the communism builder to the students. Forming of ideological conviction and communism morality was an integral part of the educational process and was combined with atheistic and internationalist education. Much attention was paid to the training of the feelings of Soviet patriotism based on the heroic history of the Party, its leaders, the heroic deeds of pioneers, Komsomol members, and red commanders during the Civil and World War II.
In the Party, in its middle and upper ranks, the cycle of political socialization completed. The «moral code of the communism builder» included a class assessment, political approach, and formation of communist ideology values – democracy, equality, public ownership, internationalism. Communitarianism, high awareness of civic duty, and an inseparability of personal interests with a state need were cultivated.
Officially approved holidays with mass demonstrations, the media, literature and the arts, films and television were widely used for political propaganda, the formation of communist ideology and political identity. The party education system contributed significantly to the formation of communist worldviews and values of Soviet workers.
Despite the generally deceitful aims, the membership in mass children and youth organizations, together with other types of education and training, contributed to the identification of workers with the existing socialism social order, the development of collectivism feelings, national solidarity, and pride in the greatness of Soviet State.

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Published
31.12.2019
How to Cite
Shanovska, O. (2019). Civic Education: Soviet Experience. EMINAK: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (4(28), 159-168. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2019.4(28).354
Section
World History and International Relations