Civic Education: Soviet Experience
The paper is devoted to the civic (communist) education of Soviet citizens in Soviet Ukraine of the second half of the 20th century. The process of formation of social and political values and aims system providing the legitimacy of the Party and Soviet regime is analyzed in the paper.
Civic education took place during the process of socialization of the individual through the system of social relations and education. Political socialization was directed by the Party and state bodies, had a communist-oriented outlook and was practically reduced to ideological education. Formation of communist consciousness began in kindergarten, continued in the first classes of «Little Octobrists», pioneer detachments, Komsomol camps.
The main task of the Soviet school was to impart the sense of civic duty of the communism builder to the students. Forming of ideological conviction and communism morality was an integral part of the educational process and was combined with atheistic and internationalist education. Much attention was paid to the training of the feelings of Soviet patriotism based on the heroic history of the Party, its leaders, the heroic deeds of pioneers, Komsomol members, and red commanders during the Civil and World War II.
In the Party, in its middle and upper ranks, the cycle of political socialization completed. The «moral code of the communism builder» included a class assessment, political approach, and formation of communist ideology values – democracy, equality, public ownership, internationalism. Communitarianism, high awareness of civic duty, and an inseparability of personal interests with a state need were cultivated.
Officially approved holidays with mass demonstrations, the media, literature and the arts, films and television were widely used for political propaganda, the formation of communist ideology and political identity. The party education system contributed significantly to the formation of communist worldviews and values of Soviet workers.
Despite the generally deceitful aims, the membership in mass children and youth organizations, together with other types of education and training, contributed to the identification of workers with the existing socialism social order, the development of collectivism feelings, national solidarity, and pride in the greatness of Soviet State.
Haievskyi, A. (1966). Zbahachennia form i metodiv masovo-politychnoi roboty KP Ukrainy sered trudiashchykh (1963-1965 rr.) [Enrichment of the forms and methods of mass-political work of the Communist Party of Ukraine among the working people (1963-1965)]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 3, 15-28 [in Ukrainian].
Horbatenko, V. (2004). Hromadianskist [Citizenship]. In Politolohichnyi entsyklopedychnyi slovnyk, (p. 122). Kyiv: Heneza [in Ukrainian].
Kahanov, Y. (2013). Radianski sviata ta obriady u konteksti ideolohichnoi polityky v Ukraini druhoi polovyny XX st. [Soviet holidays and ceremonies in the context of ideological policy in Ukraine in the second half of XX century]. Naukovi pratsi istorychnoho fakultetu Zaporizkoho natsionalnoho universytetu, 36, 186-194 [in Ukrainian].
Kalinichenko, V. & Rybalka, I. (2004). Istoriia Ukrainy. Chastyna III: 1917-2003 rr. [History of Ukraine. Part III: 1917-2003]. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Kalinin, M. (1974). O vospitaniyi kommunisticheskoi soznatelnosti [On the upbringing of communist consciousness]. Moskva [in Russian].
Kobzar, B. (1966). Vykhovuvaty uchniv na heroichnykh tradytsiiakh [Educate students in heroic traditions]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 5, 111-114 [in Ukrainian].
Kozyrev, G. Ob ideologicheskom vospitanii v SSSR v vospominaniiakh i otsenke ochevidtsa [Ideological education in the USSR (in the memories and assessment of the eyewitness)]. Retrieved from http://kozyrev-gi.ru/pages/ob-ideologicheskom-vospitanii-v-sssr/ [in Russian].
Kriuchkov, H. (1984). Pro shliakhy pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti partiinoi roboty [About ways to increase the effectiveness of party work]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 12, 5-16 [in Ukrainian].
Kurnosov, Y. (1968). Rol intelihentsii Ukrainy v komunistychnomu vykhovanni trudiashchykh [The role of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in the communist upbringing of the working people]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
Mezhenin, M. & Zamelan, V. (1969). Ideino-vykhovna robota z studentamy u pozanavchalnyi chas [Ideal and educational work with students in extra-curricular time]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 12, 112-114 [in Ukrainian].
Pietukhov, Y. (1967). Vykhovannia v uchniv pochuttia hromadianskoho oboviazku budivnyka komunizmu na urokakh istorii SRSR [Educating students’ sense of civic duty as a communist builder in the lessons of USSR history]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 3, 109-112 [in Ukrainian].
Pylynskyi, Y. (2016). Hromadianska osvita v Ukraini [Civic education in Ukraine]. Naukovi zapysky Naukma. Politychni nauky, 186, 61-66 [in Ukrainian].
Pitov, V. & Popov, V. (1965). Uchitsa kommunizmu (iz opyta vospitatelnoi raboty v vuzakh Ukrainskoi SSR) [To study communism (from experience of educational work in universities of the Ukrainian SSR)]. Kiev [in Russian].
Shapovalov, S. (2013). Sovetskie prazdniki i politicheskaia sotsializatsiia molodezhi [Soviet holidays and political socialization of youth]. Obshchestvo: Politika. Ekonomika. Pravo, 3, 30-33 [in Russian].
Tkachuk, M. (2010). Filosofska osvita v radianskii Ukraini: dosvid osmyslennia istorychnykh dokumentiv ta arkhivnykh materialiv [Philosophical education in Soviet Ukraine: experience of comprehending historical documents and archival materials]. Filosofska dumka, 6, 35-67 [in Ukrainian].
Tsvetaeva, N. (2000). Biograficheskie narrativy sovetskoi epokhi [Biographical narratives of the Soviet era]. Sotsiologicheskii zhurnal, 1-2, 150-163 [in Russian].
Vashchenko, H. (1976). Vykhovnyi ideal («Zapysky Vykhovnyka») [Educational ideal («Notes Vykhovnyk»)]. Briussel-Toronto-Niu York-London-Miunkhen [in Ukrainian].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.