Site Konstantynivka/’Strominkon’ – New Preliminary Data on the Antiquity of the Paleolithic in the South-East of Ukraine
Traditionally, the most reliable criterion for stratified Stone Age complexes searching is the presence of natural (the result of erosion processes) or artificial (the result of human economic activity) outcrops of loess soil sediments of the Quaternary. This regularity was confirmed by the discovery of a new Paleolithic site in the sandpit of the former brick plant Strominkon, located on the left bank of the river Kazennyi Torets, in the western part of the town of Kostyantynivka, Donetsk Region (Oblast).
Here an assemblage of lithic produced items with obvious tool marks was collected. Stone produced items were found in a layer of gravel-pebble alluvium, which is preliminarily correlated with the Late Luben climatolite of the Ukraine Scheme of Paleogeographic Staging, which correlates with OIS 13 of the oceanic isotope-oxygen scale.
The assemblage of produced items with secondary processing comprises only 9 items. The raw materials used are: predominantly chalk flint of high quality of various shades of gray, and so-called Virolyubivka chalcedony. Most of the items are of good preservation.
Among the produced items with secondary processing, stands out a convergent scraper on a large flint flake with a small cortex area. Two more items according to their technical and typological characteristics can be provisionally classified as so-called choppers and choppings. The rest of the findings are flakes of various categories and size fractions.
By the total range of features, the available materials look archaic. However, today the paucity of the assemblage does not give a complete picture of any technological tradition of stone processing.
In our case, the cultural layer as such is absent. We are talking about true artifacts that, due to natural processes, turned out to be included in a certain chronostratigraphic horizon – the gravel-pebble alluvium of the Late Luben (?) subclimatolith, which in itself just states only the fact of the presence of man in this part of the Paleolithic oikumene at such a prehistoric time.
Relying primarily on geological data, this site is currently the oldest stratified site containing the findings of lithic produced items of the Lower Paleolithic on the territory of eastern Ukraine.
For a final determination of the geological age of archaeological findings, a significant broadening of geological and geomorphological and stratigraphic studies is necessary, and to specify their technique and typological features, collecting of statistically significant assemblage is needed.
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