Archeozoological complex and model of animal husbandry of the inhabitants from the Trypillian settlement «Berezovska GES»
The collection of animal bone remains (about 5000 units) excavated from the Eneolithic age site «Berezovska GES» in the forest-steppe region on the left bank the river South Bug. The bones of animals were determined by V.I. Zalkin, O.P. Zhuravliov and О.P. Siekerska. The settlement is of the Atlantic period and there are 2 radiocarbon dates: 4610+70 and 564+85 Саl. BC.
Among domestic animals, the first place was occupied by cattle, the second ‑ pigs, and the third-sheep and goats. Breeding of cattle was obviously mixed ‑ meat-dairy direction. Adult animals provided reproduction of the herd and gave milk. The strategy of breeding sheep and goats was most likely aimed at obtaining wool.
The dogs that served as guards and hunting assistants had a wolf-like appearance and were of medium size. Their height at the withers was 45 cm.
The breeding of horses by the inhabitants of the Berezovska GES can now be called into question. In hoe farming and the transport of goods by the draught power of oxen, the use of the horse in agriculture could be reduced to the ussng this species in food. However, the data of age analysis (out of 17 individuals only 1 was semi-adult, and 16 were adults), contradicts the strategy of breeding horses for meat. The strategy of breeding animals for the use of meat will be somewhat different – slaughtered mainly young and semi-mature individuals. Analysis of bone measurements suggests that the remains of the horse found belong to a wild form – Tarpan.
Hunting by its economic significance continued to occupy one of the leading places in providing the population with meat food. The bones-individuals ratio for domestic and wild animals is 54,8% – 45,7% and 45,2% – 54,3% respectively.
The hunting prey included red deer, roe deer, wild boar, aurochs, beaver, wolf, bear. Periodically extracted bison, elk, hare, badger, marten and other animals. Thus, it was developed as a meat direction of hunting, and hunting for meat-fur and fur species.
The fauna of wild mammals from the Middle Pobuzhzhia region in the Atlanti period are described. Based on the description of the fauna of wild mammals of this region, the environment is characterized. The mosaic of landscapes around the settlement was determined, including such stations as broad-leaved forests with shrubby undergrowth, meadows and small areas of steppe vegetation on watersheds.
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