Structure № 25 at "Dykyi Sad" Settlement
The settlement of the Final Bronze Age "Dykyi Sad" (from the late 13th century to the 11th century BCE) is located on a high plateau upon the confluence of the Inhul and South Buh rivers (the historic center of the modern city of Mykolaiv, on the intersection of Naberezhna and Artyleriiska streets). For convenience, "Dykyi Sad" has been divided into three parts: enclosed by the moat Citadel, Suburbs, and Posad, located outside the outward moat. The architectural structures are disposed in lines along the Inhul River and almost side-by-side to each other, forming a single architectural complex. Regular archaeological studies on the territory of "Dykyi Sad" have been conducted over the last thirty years. During these years, residential, utility, and cultic and ritual objects are studied, hundreds of artifacts (pottery, bronze, bone, and lithic objects) are accumulated, and complex analyzes of archaeological materials are carried out.
The paper deals with the constructional features of the structure № 25, which is located on the territory of the settlement Citadel. The architectural composition and construction principles of the structure, as well as the peculiar features of the internal filling of the pits, are characterized. Material objects (pottery, items made of bone, horn, stone, bronze) found in the cultural layer are analyzed. The most indicative findings include horn cheek-piece, flint sickle, and anthropomorphic lithic objects. The flint sickle, which is the first such finding on the territory of "Dykyi Sad", is analyzed in detail. Different variants for mounting the tool into the haft and its usage are offered.
It is found out that structure № 25 was used by the inhabitants of the settlement as a dwelling with an outhouse in the northern part with a complex system of multifunctional pits (for posts, utility, utility and ritual). Probably the structure was built when "Dykyi Sad" was just founded and existed for a long time. Similar structures are characteristic of the sites of the North-West Black Sea region in the Late and Final Bronze Age.
A major portion of the found material objects (floor level and filling of the structure pits) are pottery (78 items) divided into two groups: closed – 59 items and open – 19 items. The main groups and types of pottery from structure № 25 are typical for the materials of "Dykyi Sad" settlement and can be found in the materials of Belozersk time settlements in the North-West Black Sea region.
Other artifacts are represented by the items made of horn, animal bones, clay, and stone. Among them dominate the talus bones with processing surface, lithic anchors, grain grinders, and upper grinding stones. Ecofacts include the remains of bones, fangs and horns of animals, fish bones, tortoise and snail shells.
In addition, it is determined that the flint sickle from Structure № 25 is somewhat similar to the bifacial sickles found in Uch-Bash (Crimea), the settlement of the Late Bronze Age, and the sickles of the so-called Bilohrudiv type, which are associated with the sites of Bilohrudiv culture. On the other hand, bifacial processing and similar design appear in earlier times of the Eneolithic-Early Bronze Age in the form of bifacially processed projectile points.
Therefore, it is not possible to determine the location and time when the tool is created. The only thing that can be said is that this tool is not made in the settlement of "Dykyi Sad", but, in different variations, the tools of similar shape and method of crafting are found at sites of the Late Bronze Age belonging to different cultures.
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