Formation of the First School of Electric Machine Engineers in the Ukrainian SSR (the 1920s)
The development of electrical engineering in the Ukrainian SSR against the background of implementing electrification since the second half of the 1920s began in the absence of both specialized engineers and their training system. But, by the 1930s the Republic managed to create its own school of electric machine engineers, the primacy leadership in which was not finally determined by researchers and was ascribed either to Kharkiv Technological Institute (KhTI) or to Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant (KhEMZ). However, the scientific works in which such allegations were made were territorially limited to Kharkiv region. This did not exclude the possibility of establishing a different course of real historical events in the expansion of the territorial boundaries of purposeful research. Thus, the controversial and fragmentary coverage in the historiography of the establishing of the first school of electric machine engineers in the Ukrainian SSR made its clarification relevant for research on the history of Ukraine within the selected chronological boundaries.
However, in addition to the purely historical aspect, the relevance of the theme is determined by the possibility of studying the experience gained in the organization of rapid training of engineers for knowledge-intensive industries in conditions of the urgent need for them, and with the lack of current experience of such work. In this context, the results of the study acquire extrapolation features, and this makes them useful in conditions similar to studied. Thus, the goal of this study is to determine the regional and professional formats of the first Ukrainian school of electric machine engineers and the reasons that led to their formation. As a result of studying the issue, it is concluded that the first school of engineers of electric machines in the Ukrainian SSR was organized in 1930 in the VTNZ (Technical Institutions of Higher Education) at KhEMZ. The reasons for organizing the studied school in Kharkiv were both in the crisis of the industry in the early 1920s and the measures taken by the USSR government to overcome the crisis territory after territory, with the additional implementation of the industrial production concentration policy in general. As a result, the regional electric machine-building facilities inherited for Ukrainian SSR from the Russian Empire lost their perspective and, accordingly, the need for engineering staff. KhEMZ, as the most powerful profile plant in the USSR, fully complied with the government's concept of industrial development, and that fact determined its further progress and, consequently, the growth of regional needs for engineers. The main reason for the organization of systematic training of electric machines engineers at the industrial enterprise was the practice of direct borrowing of appropriate construction schemes from leading foreign manufacturers introduced in the second half of the 1920s. As a result of the application of this variant of scientific support, Ukrainian manufacturers had gained priority access to modern design construction methods, which allowed them to speed up the process of proper personnel training significantly. The process became even faster when the students themselves were involved in the performing of mentioned borrowings, which, against the background of the urgency of the problem with engineering staff, played a key role in the organization of the appropriate school directly at the enterprise.
Annienkov, I.O. (2014). Elektromashynobuduvannia na ukrainskykh terenakh Rosii naperedodni revoliutsiinykh potriasin ta hromadianskoi viiny (1917 r.) [Electrical engineering in the Ukrainian territories of the Russian Empire on the eve of revolutionary upheavals and civil war (1917)]. Istoriia nauky i biohrafistyka, 2, Retrieved from: http://inb.dnsgb.com.ua/2014-2/index.html/ [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I.O. (2015). Orhanizatsiini struktury elektromashynobudivnoi haluzi v Ukrainskii RSR u 1922-1941 rr. [Organizational structures of the electric machine-building industry in the Ukrainian SSR in 1922-1941]. Istoriia nauky i tekhniky, 7, 3-20 [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I.O. (2016). Kontseptsiia naukovo-tekhnichnoi polityky v elektromashynobuduvanni Ukrainskoi SRR u period NEPu (1921-1931 rr.) [The concept of scientific and technical policy in electrical engineering of the Ukrainian SSR during the NEP (1921-1931)]. Evropský filozofický a historický diskurz, Sv. 2, (2), 44-50 [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I.O. (2017). Orhanizatsiia systemnykh naukovo-doslidnykh i doslidno-konstruktorskykh robit z oboronnoi tematyky na Kharkivskomu elektromekhanichnomu zavodi (1920-i – 1930-i roky) [Organization of systemic research and development work on defense topics at the Kharkov Electromechanical Plant (1920s-1930s)]. Abstracts of Papers: Liudyna i tekhnika u vyznachnykh bytvakh svitovykh voien XX stolittia. Lviv. Pp. 15-16 [in Ukrainian].
Annenkov, I. (2019). The Kharkov Electromechanical Plant contribution to the soviet military submarine fleet formation in the 1920-1941. Colloquium, 3, 147-164 [in English].
Annienkov, I.O. (2019). Naukove zabezpechennia vyrobnytstva elektrychnykh mashyn na Kharkivskomu elektromekhanichnomu zavodi u 1919-1940 rr.: krytyka istoriohrafii [Scientific support for the production of electric machines at the Kharkiv electromechanical plant in 1919-1940: criticism of historiografy]. Doslidzhennia z istorii i filosofii tekhniky, Vol. 28 (2), 70-76 [in Ukrainian].
Lapirov-Skoblo, M. (1924). Russkaia promyshlennost v 1923 godu [Russian industry in 1923]. Vol. 1: Otchet II siezdu Sovetov SSSR [Report to the Congress of Soviets of the USSR]. Moskva: VSNKh [in Russian].
Novikov, M.V. (2006). Inostrannyi kapital v sovetskoi elektrotekhnicheskoi promyshlennosti silnykh tokov formy privlecheniia i rezultaty ispolzovaniia (1920-1932 gg.) [Foreign capital in the Soviet electrotechnical industry of strong currents: forms of attraction and results of use (1920-1932)] (Extended abstract of Candidate’s thesis). Volgograd: Volgogradskii gosudarstvennyi universitet [in Russian].
Savchuk, V.S. & Siukh, A.V. (2012). Heorhii Yevhenovych Yevreinov – znakova postat hirnychoi nauky [Georgy Evgenievich Evreinov – an iconic personality in mining science]. Naddniprianska Ukraina: istorychni protsesy, podii, postati, 10, 193-204 [in Ukrainian].
Suzdaltsev, V.V. & etc. (1965). Ocherk istorii Kharkovskogo elektromekhanicheskogo zavoda [History of the Kharkov Electromechanical Plant]. Vol. 2: 1918-1964 gg. Kharkov: Prapor [in Russian].
Tkachenko, S.S. (2006). Vnesok P.P. Kopniaieva u rozvytok vitchyznianoi elektrotekhniky [Contribution of P.P. Kopnyaev to the development of domestic electrical engineering]. Abstracts of Papers: Aktualni pytannia istorii nauky i tekhniky. Kyiv, 45-48 [in Ukrainian].
Tverytnykova, O.Ye. (2007). Rozvytok merezhi pidhotovky kadriv dlia elektrotekhnichnoho promyslovoho kompleksu [Development of a training network for the electrotechnical industrial complex]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu «KhPI»: Avtomatyka ta pryladobuduvannia, 37, 90-93 [in Ukrainian].
Tverytnykova, O.Ye. (2008). Naukovo-doslidna robota v haluzi elektropryvodu v Kharkivskomu elektrotekhnichnomu instytuti (30-40 roky XX st.) [Research work in the field of electric drive at the Kharkov Electrotechnical Institute (30-40 years of the twentieth century)]. Abstracts of Papers: Aktualni pytannia istorii nauky i tekhniky. Kyiv, 98-100 [in Ukrainian].
Tverytnykova, O.Ye. (2009). Vnesok uchenykh Kharkivskoho tekhnolohichnoho ta elektrotekhnichnoho instytutiv u rozvytok elektrotekhnichnoi haluzi Ukrainy (1885-1950 rr.) [The contribution of scientists of the Kharkov Technological and Electrotechnical Institutes in the development of the electrotechnical industry of Ukraine (1885-1950)] (Candidate’s thesis). Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Vasilev, M.P., Potresov, V.E. & Teitel, I.V. (1922). Promyshlennost Ukrainy v 1921 godu [Industry of Ukraine in 1921]. Kharkov: USNKh [in Russian].
Volosnyk, Yu.P. (2002). Nova burzhuaziia Ukrainy ta rozvytok pryvatnopidpryiemnytskoi diialnosti na finansovomu rynku v roky NEPu [The new bourgeoisie of Ukraine and the development of private entrepreneurship in the financial market during the NEP]. Kharkiv: NMTs «SD» [in Ukrainian].
Vydolob, Yu.F. & Senko, V.I. (1998). Kafedra teoretychnykh osnov elektrotekhniky [Department of Theoretical Foundations of Electrical Engineering]. Fakultet elektroenerhotekhniky. Narysy istorii, Kyiv: KPI, 53-75 [in Ukrainian].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.