Issue of Authenticity of Peasant Memoirs Describing Holodomor of 1932-1933

Keywords: Ukraine, USSR, grain procurement, Holodomor of 1932-1933, historical sources, memoirs, peasants, collective farmers

Abstract

In the offered paper the issue of reliability of the information stated in peasant memoirs concerning events of Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine is considered. The level of possibilities for processing peasant memoirs as an independent historical source in complex historical researches is studied. Factors influencing the authenticity of memoirs are determined: self-censorship, aberrations of various kinds, the influence of the social and cultural environment, etc. The scheme of classification of peasant memoir sources by groups according to their internal features and signs is offered.

Four groups of peasant personal sources are identified, depending on their information capabilities in studying of Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine issues. The peculiarities of peasant memoirs and trends of their further study are determined for each of the proposed groups. The conditions in which peasant memoir sources appear are analyzed.

According to the results of a comparative analysis of peasant memoirs and data from The National Memory Book of Holodomor Victims 1932-1933 in Ukraine, several new names are identified that are absent in the previously collected information and need to be included in The National Memory Book.

The studied peasant memoirs are a unique historical source, which allows to studying the events of Holodomor of 1932-1933 at first hand, from people who were the direct victims of the tragedy. Peasant memoirs contain valuable fragments of historical observations, reflect the likes and dislikes of the authors, their views, assessments, observations, distresses of soul, and allow a clearer understanding of the atmosphere that prevailed in the village at that time.

Using of peasant memoirs in the study of Holodomor gives the opportunity to distinguish a new layer of historical information from the direct participants in the events of the famine of 1932-1933. Such evidence adds authenticity to the image of history and allows to trace the effects of Soviet education and propaganda on the individual and allows us to take a fresh look at the specifics of the little man’s relationship with the totalitarian Bilshovyk regime, and better understand peasant thinking and mid-20th century life.

References

Alieksieiev, O. (2009). «Orikhivska sprava v doli moiei rodyny» [The Orikhiv case is the fate of my family]. Zaporizhzhia [in Ukrainian].

Bilivnenko, S. & Moldavska, T. (Comp.). (2014). Salo Serhii. Spohady (1899-1946 rr.) [Salo Sergii. Memoirs (1899-1946)] (Seriia «Starozhytnosti Pivdennoi Ukrainy», Vol. 24). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Boiko, A. & etc. (Comp.). (2006). Memuary ta shchodennyky (Dzherela z istorii Pivdennoi Ukrainy) [Memoirs and diaries (Sources on the history of Southern Ukraine)]. Vol. 9. Zaporizhzhia [in Ukrainian].

Boriak, T. (Comp.). (2016). «I choho vy shche zhyvi?» [«And why are you still alive?»]. Kyiv: TOV «Vydavnytstvo «Klio» [in Ukrainian].

Borodin, Ye.I. (Ed.). (2008). Natsionalna Knyha pam’iati zhertv Holodomoru 1932-1933 rr. v Ukraini. Dnipropetrovska oblast [National Book of Remembrance for the Victims of the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine. Dnipropetrovsk region]. Dnipropetrovsk: ART-PRES [in Ukrainian].

Conquest, R. (1993). Zhnyva skorboty. Kolektyvizatsiia i holodomor [The harvest of sorrow. Collectivization and the Holodomor]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Danylenko, V.M. (Comp.) (2010). Holodomor 1932-1933 rr. v Ukraini za dokumentamy HDA SBU: Anotovanyi dovidnyk [Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine according to the documents of the Sectoral State Archive of State Security Service of Ukraine: Annotated reference book]. Lviv: Tsentr doslidzhen vyzvolnoho rukhu [in Ukrainian].

Danylenko, V., Kas’ianov, G. & Kulchytskyi, S. (1991). Stalinizm na Ukraini: 20-30-ti roky [Stalinism in Ukraine: 1920-30th]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Dnevniki i zapisi [Diaries and notes] (N.d.). Sait «Prozhyto». Retrieved from: https://www.prozhito.org

Faizulin, Ya. (Ed.) (2018). «Represovani» shchodennyky. Holodomor 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukraini [«Repressed» diaries. The Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine]. Kyiv: Feniks [in Ukrainian].

Faizulin, Ya. (2017, November, 30). Shchodennyk uchytelia, za yakyi daly 10 rokiv taboriv [Teacher’s Diary, for which they gave 10 years of camps]. Gazeta.ua. Retrieved from: https://gazeta.ua/articles/events-journal/_sodennik-uchitelya-za-yakij-dali-10-rokiv-taboriv/805029 [in Ukrainian].

Kapustian, G. (2009). Otsinka Holodomoru 1932-1933 rr. v Ukraini v dokumentakh usnoi istorii [Estimation of the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine in oral history documents]. Abstracts of Papers: Holodomor 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukraini: prychyny, demohrafichni naslidky, pravova otsinka, (pp. 169-189). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Konshyn, D. (2008). Rasskaz o svoei zhyzni… [A story about my life…]. Zaporizhzhia [in Ukrainian].

Liubovets, N. (2010). Vyvchennia memuariv yak istorychnoho ta biohrafichnoho dzherela: do istoriohrafii problem [The study of memoirs as a historical and biographical source: to the historiography of the problem]. Ukrainska biohrafistyka, 7, 66-104 [in Ukrainian].

Mase, J. (2004). Politychni prychyny Holodomoru v Ukraini (1932-1933 rr.) [Political causes of the Holodomor in Ukraine (1932-1933)]. Retrieved from: http://ekmair.ukma.edu.ua/handle/123456789/447 [in Ukrainian].

Marochko, V. (2007). Holodomor 1932-1933 rr. [Holodomor of 1932-1933]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Milchev, V. & Iriohlu, Y. (2008). «Usni istorii» tavriiskykh bolhar yak dzherelo doslidzhennia holodomoriv 1932-1933 ta 1946-1947 rokiv [«Oral stories» of Taurian Bulgarians as a source of research on the Holodomors of 1932-1933 and 1946-1947]. In Holodomor 1932-1933: zaporizkyi vymir, (pp. 208-230). Zaporizhzhia [in Ukrainian].

Pyrih, R.Ya. (Comp.) (2007). Holodomor 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukraini: dokumenty i materialy [The Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine: documents and materials]. Kyiv: Vyd. dim «Kyievo-Mohylianska akademiia» [in Ukrainian].

Shapoval, Y. (2006). Holodomor 1932-1933: vtrata ta vynaidennia [The Holodomor of 1932-1933: losses and finds from public archival documents]. Dzerkalo tyzhnia, 44, 21 [in Ukrainian].

Turchenko, F. (2008). Piznaty pravdu… [Learn the truth…]. In Holodomor 1932-1933: zaporizkyi vymir, (pp. 6-22). Zaporizhzhia [in Ukrainian].

Turchenko, F.H. (Ed.). (2008). Natsionalna Knyha pam’iati zhertv Holodomoru 1932-1933 pp. v Ukraini. Zaporizka oblast [National Book of Remembrance for the Victims of the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine. Zaporizhzhia region]. Zaporizhzhia: Dyke Pole [in Ukrainian].

Verstiuk, V., Tylishchak, V. & Yukhnovskyi, I. (2008). Henotsyd ukrainskoho narodu 1932-1933 [Genocide of the Ukrainian people 1932-1933]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Veselova, O. (2003). Ukrainski zbirnyky dokumentiv i materialiv z pytan holodomoru. Holod 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukraini: prychyny ta naslidky [Ukrainian collections of documents and materials on the Holodomor. The famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine: causes and consequences]. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka [in Ukrainian].

Yakovliev, I.O. (Ed.). (2008). Natsionalna knyhy pam’iati zhertv Holodomoru 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukraini. Khersonska oblast [National Book of Remembrance for the Victims of the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine. Kherson region]. Kherson [in Ukrainian].

Published
01.10.2020
How to Cite
AlieksieievO. (2020). Issue of Authenticity of Peasant Memoirs Describing Holodomor of 1932-1933. Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (3(31), 261-274. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2020.3(31).457
Section
Historiography, Source Study and Special Historical Disciplines