Crop Production as the Main Source of Peasant Budgets Formation during NEP Period
The crop production as the major source of the peasant revenues increasing during the NEP period is analyzed in the paper on specific examples clarifying the regional features of their formation. It is noted that traditionally crop production in Ukraine was divided into crop growing, vegetable growing, horticulture, viticulture, grassland husbandry, and forestry. The leading role belonged to crop growing – the cultivation of field crops (grain crops, industrial crops, cucurbits, forage crops, potatoes). Crop production specialization of agriculture during the NEP period in most parts of Ukraine is historically determined by natural and geographical factors, primarily by the quality of land and agro-climatic resources.
Factors influencing the cost price of crops produced by peasant holdings of Ukraine and their income are analyzed. The main ones are the provision of peasant holdings with the land, means of production, and labor resources. It is found out that revenue from crop production increased comparing poor and economically strong holdings. The profitability of peasant holdings from crop production directly depended on crop yield and harvest, as well as on price conditions, agricultural implements, and other factors.
The share of sale proceeds from various types of agricultural products in the budgets of peasant families in terms of different regions of Ukraine is characterized. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the main income for peasant families was gained from grain products. In addition to grain crops, an important source of monetary replenishment of the budgets of peasant holdings was the proceeds from the sale of products of other branches of crop production – vegetable growing, horticulture, viticulture, and cucurbits.
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