Crop Production as the Main Source of Peasant Budgets Formation during NEP Period

Keywords: budget, crop production, new economic policy, profit, sown areas, grain crops, peasant holding

Abstract

The crop production as the major source of the peasant revenues increasing during the NEP period is analyzed in the paper on specific examples clarifying the regional features of their formation. It is noted that traditionally crop production in Ukraine was divided into crop growing, vegetable growing, horticulture, viticulture, grassland husbandry, and forestry. The leading role belonged to crop growing – the cultivation of field crops (grain crops, industrial crops, cucurbits, forage crops, potatoes). Crop production specialization of agriculture during the NEP period in most parts of Ukraine is historically determined by natural and geographical factors, primarily by the quality of land and agro-climatic resources.

Factors influencing the cost price of crops produced by peasant holdings of Ukraine and their income are analyzed. The main ones are the provision of peasant holdings with the land, means of production, and labor resources. It is found out that revenue from crop production increased comparing poor and economically strong holdings. The profitability of peasant holdings from crop production directly depended on crop yield and harvest, as well as on price conditions, agricultural implements, and other factors.

The share of sale proceeds from various types of agricultural products in the budgets of peasant families in terms of different regions of Ukraine is characterized. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the main income for peasant families was gained from grain products. In addition to grain crops, an important source of monetary replenishment of the budgets of peasant holdings was the proceeds from the sale of products of other branches of crop production – vegetable growing, horticulture, viticulture, and cucurbits.

References

Chernyshev, I.V. (1931). Selskoe khoziaistvo SSSR (k piatiletke 1927/28 – 1932/33 gg.) [Agriculture of the USSR (to the five-year plan 1927/28 – 1932/33)]. Moskva [in Russian].

Hurevych, M.B. (1927). Pytannia suchasnoho selianskoho hospodarstva Ukrainy [Issues of modern peasant economy of Ukraine]. Kharkiv: Tsentralne statystychne upravlinnia USRR [in Ukrainian].

Kalinichenko, V.V. (1997). Selianske hospodarstvo Ukrainy v period NEPu: istoryko-ekonomichne doslidzhennia [Peasant economy of Ukraine in the period of NEP: historical and economic research]. Kharkiv: Osnova [in Ukrainian].

Kachinskiy, V. (1922). Ocherki agrarnoi revoliutsii na Ukraine [Essays on the Agrarian Revolution in Ukraine]. Vol. 1. Kharkov [in Russian].

Lazurenko, V.M. (2012). Stanovlennia ta rozvytok selianskykh fermerskykh hospodarstv v Ukraini: sotsialno-ekonomichnyi aspekt (1921-1929 rr.) [Formation and development of peasant farms in Ukraine: socio-economic aspect (1921-1929)]. (Doctor’s thesis). Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi [in Ukrainian].

Minaev, S. (1928). Osnovnye itogi narodno-khoziaistvennogo razvitiya Ukrainy za 1926-1927 god [The main results of the national economic development of Ukraine for 1926-1927]. Statisticheskoe obozrenie, 1 [in Russian].

Morozov, A.H. (1993). Selo i hroshi: ukrainska kredytna kooperatsiia v dobu NEPu [Village and money: Ukrainian credit cooperation in the era of the NEP]. Cherkasy [in Russian].

Olianych, V.V. (2014). Ekonomichna efektyvnist selianskoho hospodarstva v USSR u 20-kh rr. XX st. [Economic efficiency of the peasant economy in the USSR in the 20’s of XX century]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats. Seriya: «Istoriia ta heohrafiia», 50, 99-103 [in Ukrainian].

Rybak, I.V. (2008). Indyvidualne selianske hospodarstvo Podillia v dobu NEPu [Individual peasant economy in Podillia region in the era of the NEP]. Kam’ianets-Podilskyi: Abetka [in Ukrainian].

Sviderska, O. (2014). Rozvytok dopomizhnykh haluzei roslynnytstva na Podilli u dobu NEP (1921-1929 rr.) [Development of auxiliary branches of crop production in Podillia region in the era of the NEP (1921-1929)]. Naukovi zapysky Ternopilskoho natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni Volodymyra Hnatiuka. Seriya: Istoriia, 2 (3), 190-193 [in Ukrainian].

Sushko, O.O. (2002). Rol selianskoho dvoru u formuvanni rynku silskohospodarskoi produktsii v roky NEPu [The role of the peasant’s yard in the formation of the market of agricultural products during the NEP]. Ukrainskyi selianyn, 4, 70-76 [in Ukrainian].

Tymchenko, O. (1928). Visimnadtsiat selianskykh biudzhetiv z Cherkashchyny [Eighteen peasant budgets from Cherkasy region]. Ukrainskyi ahronom, 2-3, 24-34 [in Ukrainian].

Vlasenko, S. (1928). Perevybory rad. Ekonomichnyi stan USRR [Re-election of councils. Economic condition of the USSR]. Radianska Ukraina, 9 (46), 5-14 [in Ukrainian].

Yakimanskiy, V.A. (1924). K itogam agrarnoi revoliutsiyi na Ukraine [Towards the results of the agrarian revolution in Ukraine]. Kharkov [in Russian].

Published
13.01.2021
How to Cite
TerpanI. (2021). Crop Production as the Main Source of Peasant Budgets Formation during NEP Period. Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (4(32), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2020.4(32).468
Section
History of Ukraine