Campaign to Attack Personal Plots of Ukrainian Peasantry during the ‘Thaw’
The problem of Ukrainian village situation in Khrushchev era is the subject of the scientific study of a constellation of home scholars. In modern Ukrainian historiography, it is relevant to highlight the issue of the anti-peasant character of the agrarian policy during the Soviet era in general and during the ‘Thaw’ in particular. Peasant studies are characterized by the analysis of agrarian transformations of 1953-1964 and the place of Ukrainian village in those processes, the coverage of certain issues of the life of Ukrainian peasantry in the days of the ‘Thaw’, among which the functioning of personal plots of collective farmers, the material well-being of Ukrainian peasantry, etc. A number of scientific works of V. Marchuk, M. Pliushch, L. Berenshtein, V. Lysak, I. Lubko, and others are devoted to these aspects.
The goal of the paper is to characterize the key moments of restraining the development of personal plots of the Ukrainian peasantry after the time when Khrushchev became the sole leader of the party and the state.
It is proved that when the government began to implement a number of measures that contradicted the postulates of a new course of agricultural policy, introduced by the September (1953) plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the state initiated a rather strict restriction of personal initiatives of the collective farm peasantry by aggressive administrative and coercive methods, which quickly reminded the peasants of the previous Stalin era, which they had not yet forgotten. A mass ideological campaign was launched, convincing that the private agricultural sector was a survival of the past, inefficient and impractical in a socialist society.
All those measures in the aggregate gave only a negative result: first of all, it was an aggravation of material well-being of collective farmers since the personal plot was that foundation which gave the chance to a peasant family to earn appreciable incomes and to satisfy their own needs. Restrictions had led to a decrease in the number of agricultural products and rising prices for them on collective farm markets. The state did not take into account the fact that personal plots were an active and considerable component of agricultural production. The process of personal plots restricting was not logical, but was entirely initiated by the state. Accordingly, the process of weakening the agricultural sector of the economy as a whole began.
Berenstein, L. (1995). Ahrarni problemy diialnosti M.S. Khrushchova [Agrarian problems of M.S. Khrushchev’s activity]. Proceedings of the Seminar (14.04.1994): «M.S. Khrushchov i Ukraina», (pp. 79-87). Kyiv: Instytut istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].
Egorov A.G. & Bogoliubov, K.M. (Eds). (1986). KPSS v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh siezdov konferentsii i plenumov TSK 1898-1988 [The CPSU in the resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee (1898-1988)]. Moskva: Izdatelstvo politicheskoi literatury [in Russian].
Lisogorova, K. (2013). Rehuliuvannia tsyvilno-pravovykh vidnosyn v URSR v 1950-kh – na pochatku 1960-kh rokiv [Regulation of civil law relations in the USSR in the 1950s – early 1960s]. Forum prava, 1, 613-617 [in Ukrainian].
Lubko, I. (2003). Rol i mistse osobystykh prysadybnykh hospodarstv u konteksti ahrarnykh peretvoren M.S. Khrushchova (1953-1964 rr.) [The role and place of personal homesteads in the context of agrarian transformations of M.S. Khrushchev (1953-1964)]. Ukrainskyi selianyn, 6, 93-96 [in Ukrainian].
Lysak, V. (2013). Povsiakdennist ukrainskykh selian v umovakh radianskoi diisnosti (1950-1960-ti rr.) [Everyday Life of Ukrainian peasants in the conditions of the Soviet reality (1950-1960)]. Donetsk [in Ukrainian].
Marchuk, V. & Tymchenko, S. (2001). Do problemy vyznachennia etapiv derzhavnoi polityky shchodo osobystykh pidsobnykh hospodarstv silskoho naselennia v 1955-1965 rokakh [On the problem of determining the stages of State policy on personal farms of the rural population in 1955-1965]. Ukrainskyi selianyn, 3, 305-310 [in Ukrainian].
Panchenko, P. & Shmarchuk, V. (2000). Ahrarna istoriia Ukrainy [Agrarian history of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Znannia [in Ukrainian].
Panchenko, P. (1995). Fenomen M.S. Khrushchova u konteksti novoho osmyslennia [The phenomenon of M.S. Khrushchev in the context of a new understanding]. Proceedings of the Seminar (14.04.1994): «M.S. Khrushchov i Ukraina», (pp. 15-18). Kyiv: Instytut istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].
Plyushch, M. (1999). M. Khrushchov i problemy tekhnichnoho pereozbroiennia narodnoho hospodarstva (1953-1964) [M. Khrushchov and the problems of technical re-equipment of the national economy (1953-1964)]. Istoriia v shkoli, 7, 6-11 [in Ukrainian].
Plyushch, M. (2011). Problemy rozvytku ahrarnoho sektora (druha polovyna 1940-kh – persha polovyna 1960-kh rr.) [Problems of development of the agricultural sector (second half of the 1940s – first half of the 1960s)]. Ukraina XX st.: kultura, ideolohiia, polityka, 16, 71-82 [in Ukrainian].
Smolii, V.A. (Ed.) (2005). Ukraina: Khronika XX st.: roky 1946-1960 [Ukraine: Chronicle of the XX century. Years 1946-1960] Vols. 1-2. Kyiv: In-t istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].
Volkov, I.M. (Ed). (1998). Istoriia sovetskogo krestianstva [History of the Soviet peasantry]. Vol. 4. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].
Zavalnyuk, O. & Rybak, I. (2004). Novitnia ahrarna istoriia Ukrainy [Recent agrarian history of Ukraine]. Kamianets-Podilskyi: Abetka-nova [in Ukrainian].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.