Rus Campaigns in Tabaristan in the Second Half of the 9th – Early 10th Century: Route and Place in International Relations (on Materials of Ibn Isfandiyār)

Keywords: Rus, Rus campaigns, Khazaria, Tabaristan, Caspian Sea, Byzantium, Volga-Baltic Waterway

Abstract

The route and place in international relations of the Rus campaigns in Tabaristan, which took place in the second half of the 9th – early 10th century, are studied in the paper. Attention is also paid to the issue of the place of those military actions in Rus-Khazars relationships.

During the studied period, the Khazar Khaganate remained the leading state in the region. The getting of the Rus to the Caspian Sea was possible only with the consent of the rulers of the Khazar Khaganate.

The passage of the Rus into this region is associated with the emergence of the Volga trade route. However, they used this way only from Ladoga to Volga Bulgaria. No reliable sources are telling about the Rus moving along the Volga between Volga Bulgaria and Khazaria during the 9th – 10th centuries.

It can be said with high probability that the Rus came to the Caspian Sea from the Black Sea, over the Sea of Azov, the Don, and the Volga, and the starting point for mentioned campaigns should be considered the Middle Dnipro region, where not later than the early 10th century the center of princely power appeared in Kyiv.

There is no direct link between those actions and the Rus-Byzantine treaties, and the enemies of the Rus in the region were more often Muslim rulers who were not in direct confrontation with Constantinople or could act as potential allies of the Byzantine Empire. The first campaign of the Rus was directed against Hasan ibn Zayd, the Shiite ruler of Tabaristan. The latter acted against the caliphs of Baghdad, having captured terraria through which the paths of Rus merchants passed. Expeditions of 909/910 and 910/911 years caused the clashes between the Rus and the forces of the Samanid emirs in Tabaristan. We cannot say for sure whether those attacks were politically motivated, but they were stopped after mending differences between Khazaria and the Central Asian emirs.

References

Aliev, S.M. (1969). O datirovke nabegov rusov, upomianutykh ibn Isfandiiarom i Amoli [On the dating of the raid of the Rus mentioned by Ibn Isfandiyar and Amoli]. In Vostochnye istochniki po istorii narodov Yugo-Vostochnoi i Tsentralnoi Evropy, (Vol. II, pp. 316-321). Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Artamonov, M.I. (1962). Istoriia khazar [The history of Khazars]. Leningrad [in Russian].

Dorn, B.A. (1875). O pokhodakh drevnikh russkikh v Tabaristan [About the campaigns of the ancient Russians to Tabaristan]. Sankt-Petersburg [in Russian].

Dubov, I.V. (1990). Velikii Volzhskii put [Great Volga route]. Leningrad: LGU [in Russian].

Franklin, S. & Shepard, D. (2009]. Nachalo Rusi, 750-1200 [The Emergence of Rus: 750-1200]. Sankt-Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin [in Russian].

Kalinina, T.M. (2015). Problemy istorii Khazarii (po dannym vostochnykh istochnikov) [Problems of the history of Khazaria (according to eastern sources)]. Moskva: Russkii fond sodeistviia obrazovaniiu i nauke [in Russian].

Kalinina, T.M., Flyorov, V.S. & Petrukhin, V.Y. (2014). Khazariia v krosskulturnom prostranstve: istoricheskaia geografiia, krepostnaia arkhitektura, vybor very [Khazaria in Cross-cultural Space: Historical Geography, Fortress Architecture, Choice of Faith]. Moskva: Rukopisnye pamiatniki Drevnei Rusi [in Russian].

Kirpichnikov, L.N., Dubov, I.V. & Lebedev, G.S. (1986). Rus i variagi (russko-skandinavskie otnosheniia domongolskogo vremeni) [Russia and the Varangians (Russian-Scandinavian relations of the pre-Mongol period)]. Moskva: Progress [in Russian].

Kliashtornyi, S.G. & Savinov, D.G. (2005). Stepnye imperii Drevnei Evrazii [Steppe empires of Ancient Eurasia]. Sankt-Petersburg: Filologicheskii fakultet SPbGU [in Russian].

Komar, A.V. (2012). Kiev i Pravoberezhnoe Podneprovie [Kiev and the Right Bank Dnieper]. In Rus v IX-X vekakh: arkheologicheskaia panorama. Moskva-Vologda, pp. 300-332 [in Russian].

Konovalova, I.G. (2001). Rusy na Kaspii v IX – pervoi polovine X v. (k voprosu o sostave uchastnikov kaspiiskikh pokhodov) [Rus in the Caspian Sea in the 9th – first half of the 10th century (to the question of the consist of the participants in the Caspian campaigns)]. Proceedings of the Conference: «Velikii Volzhskii put». Kazan: MasterLain, pp. 164-172 [in Russian].

Konovalova, I.G. (1999). Pokhody rusov na Kaspii i russko-khazarskie otnosheniia [Rus campaigns to the Caspian Sea and Russian-Khazar relations]. In Vostochnaia Evropa v istoricheskoi retrospective. Moskva, pp. 111-120 [in Russian].

Kuzovkov, V.V. (2013). Khozarskyi kahanat i musulmanskyi svit u IX st. [Khazar Khaganate and the World of Islam in the 9th century]. Naukovyi visnyk Mykolaivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni V.O. Sukhomlynskoho: Istorychni nauky, 4.33, 182-188 [in Ukrainian].

Kuzovkov, V.V. (2020). Pokhid rusiv na Kaspii i rusko-khazarska ukhoda u konteksti mizhnarodnykh vidnosyn pershoi chverti X stolittia [Rus’ march on the Caspian Sea and the Russo-Khazar agreement in the context of international relations of the first quarter of the tenth century]. Colloquia Russica. Series I, Vol. 10: Diplomacy of Medieval Rus’ of the 10th-16th cc. (in publ.) [in Ukrainian].

Lebedev, G.S. (2005). Epokha vikingov v Severnoi Evrope i na Rusi [The era of the Vikings in Northern Europe and in Rus’]. Sankt-Petersburg: Evraziia [in Russian].

Likhachev, D.S. (Comp.) (1950). Povest vremennykh let [The Tale of Bygone Years]. Moskva: AN SSSR [in Russian].

Lugovoi, O.M. (2018). Politicheskaia karta mira glazami vizantiiskogo intelektuala X veka [The political map of the world through the eyes of the Byzantine intellectual of the 10th century]. Vizantiiskaia mozaika Sbornik publichnykh lektsii Ellino-vizantiiskogo lektoriia pri Sviato-Panteleimonovskom khrame. Kharkov, pp. 159-190 [in Russian].

Melnikova, E.A. (2003). Drevniaia Rus v svete zarubezhnykh istochnikov [Ancient Russia in the light of foreign sources]. Moskva: Logos [in Russian].

Mets, A. (1973). Musulmanskii renessans [Muslim renaissance]. Moskva [in Russian].

Miuller, A. (2004). Istoriia islama. Ot musulmanskoi Persii do padeniia musulmanskoi Ispanii [History of Islam: From Muslim Persia to the Fall of Muslim Spain]. Moskva: Astrel-ACT [in Russian].

Novoseltsev, A.P. (1990). Khazarskoe gosudarstvo i ego rol v istorii Vostochnoi Evropy i Kavkaza [Khazar state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus]. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Petrukhin, V.Y. (2014). Rus v IX-X vekakh: Ot prizvaniia variagov do vybora very [Rus in the 9th – 10th centuries. From varangians invitation to the choice of faith]. Moskva: Forum Neolit [in Russian].

Sakharov, A.N. (1980). Diplomatiia drevnei Rusi. IX – pervaia polovina X v. [Diplomacy of Ancient Rus. 9th – first half of the 10th century]. Moskva: Mysl [in Russian].

Tolochko, A.P. (2015). Ocherki nachalnoi Rusi [Essays on early Rus]. Kiev-Sankt-Petersburg: Laurus [in Russian].

Tolochko, P.P. (1987). Drevniaia Rus: Ocherki sotsialno-politicheskoi istorii [Ancient Rus: Essays on socio-political history]. Kiev: Naukova dumka [in Russian].

Voitovych, L. (2011). Zahadky vikinhiv: Ladoha i Plisnesk. Prodovzhennia dyskusii na mezhi XX-XXI stolit [Riddles of Vikings: Ladoga and Plisnesk. Continuation of the discussion at the boundaries of the XX-XXI centuries]. Ukraina: kulturna spadshchyna, natsionalna svidomist, derzhavnist, 20, 142-188 [in Ukrainian].

Zuckerman, K. (2007). Perestroika drevneishei russkoi istorii [(Re-)structuring early Russian history]. U istokov russkoi gosudarstvennosti. K 30-letiiu arkheologicheskogo izucheniia Novgorodskogo Riurikova gorodishcha i Novgorodskoi oblasnoi arkheologicheskoi ekspeditsii. Sankt-Petersburg, pp. 343-351 [in Russian].

Published
31.03.2021
How to Cite
KuzovkovV. (2021). Rus Campaigns in Tabaristan in the Second Half of the 9th – Early 10th Century: Route and Place in International Relations (on Materials of Ibn Isfandiyār). Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (1(33), 318-327. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2021.1(33).510
Section
Middle Ages