Archaeological Activity of Anatolii Vissarionovych Burakov in 1950-1960 (Excavations of Olbia Outskirts Settlement near Kozyrka Village)

  • Tetiana Shevchenko Olbia National Historical and Archaeological Reserve of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4237-8074
Keywords: Olbia outskirts, Kozyrka settlement, provincial Roman culture

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the archeological activity of Anatolii Vissarionovych Burakov in 1950-1960, in particular, the excavations of the settlement of Olbia outskirts near the village of Kozyrka. In the course of the survey, the main cultural and chronological layers of the ancient settlement were defined and the state of archeological objects preservation was specified, as well as their prospects from the point of view of further scientific excavations were determined.

In general, till the middle of the 19th century a considerable number of ancient settlements on both banks of the Buh estuary were already known, their descriptions were compiled and detailed, as for that time, topographic plans were made. At the same time, many researchers paid attention to the fortified settlement near the village of Kozyrka, located on the right bank of the Buh estuary, which really stood out among others for its topographic features.

The study of Kozyrka ancient settlement is associated with the name of Anatolii Vissarionovych Burakov, Candidate of Historical Sciences, the researcher who many years worked for the National Historical and Archaeological Reserve ‘Olbia’ of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Under his academic advising and with his direct participation, almost a hundred years after the first mention in the scientific literature, considerable research work was carried out.

In 1953, under the leadership of A.V. Burakov, some exploring works were carried out to the west of the ancient settlement. According to the results of research conducted in 1954-1967, the residential block of about ten buildings combining residential and utility functions was fully uncovered. The reference points of several streets of the settlement also became known. In general, the conclusions about the planning features and housing development of the settlement were made.

In general, the excavations of Kozyrka ancient settlement headed by A.V. Burakov showed that life on the territory of Olbia outskirts existed from the end of the 1st century BCE to the middle of the 3rd century CE. In addition, it was found out that on the whole Kozyrka ancient settlement in form and topography visually resembled Olbia. Deep ravines with steep slopes were the main defensive lines. The main gate and defensive towers were located on the north side. The basis of the economic activities of Kozyrka ancient settlement population was agriculture and cattle breeding.

The subsequent publication of the carefully analyzed Kozyrka ceramic complex, carried out by A.V. Burakov, became for many years a standard for the study of the material culture of the first centuries CE sites of not only Olbia chora, but the whole North-Western Black Sea region as well.

Also, during the excavations, a significant amount of construction material was found. The children's burials found in the premises under the floor reflect the ideological persuasions of the inhabitants of the settlement, and, according to A.V. Burakov, were associated with the cult of fertility, which was in general widespread among agricultural tribes.

A study of Olbia outskirts with the participation of A.V. Burakov facilitated appearing on the archaeological map over 100 ancient settlements, locations, and burials, getting a significant amount of archaeological material, which describes of the history and culture of the Lower Buh region in ancient times.

The results of excavations in 1954-1967 of Kozyrka ancient settlement headed by A.V. Burakov formed the basis of his candidate's dissertation, a number of publications, and later a monograph.

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Published
31.03.2021
How to Cite
ShevchenkoT. (2021). Archaeological Activity of Anatolii Vissarionovych Burakov in 1950-1960 (Excavations of Olbia Outskirts Settlement near Kozyrka Village). Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (1(33), 339-351. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2021.1(33).512
Section
History of Archaeological Research