Strengthening of Hephaestion Titulary and ‘Hazarapat’ Position Concept in Alexander the Great Empire

Keywords: Hephaestion, titulary, hazarapat, Achaemenids, Alexander the Great


The formation of the titulary of Hephaestion, one of the closest persons to Alexander the Great is analyzed in the paper. In the context of syncretic processes in the military, political, and administrative systems of the empire, and under the influence of the drawn towards the Achaemenids heritage, the evolution of senior officials’ positions can be traced, and the most clearly these processes are seen on the example of Hephaestion.

During the Eastern campaign, from the hetairoi and the king’s bodyguard, Hephaestion’s titulary rose to ‘the second man after the ruler’, and the Persian position of ‘Hazarapat’. The practice of synthesizing the positions and titles of the Greco-Macedonian and Achaemenids worlds was quite common among Alexander’s entourage. An important factor was that Hephaestion performed not only the functions of the Persian Hazarapat, but also got responsibilities to control and organize the supply and movement of troops, and negotiated with foreign diplomats as well. Therefore, the title ‘Hazarapat’, or ‘Chiliarch’ (as Xenophon named this position) had become an independent position with broad powers.

In the study, the author suggests his own structured concept of the evolution of Hephaestion’s titles and on the basis of the source base explains his rise to power and high military rank during the Eastern campaign of Alexander. Author’s contribution to the studied issue is the very definition of the position of ‘Hazarapat’ for Hephaestion, which reflected and initiated new, Hellenistic changes in the empire of Alexander.

The study is of great relevance because the personality of Hephaestion has not been studied enough and is poorly represented in the sources. The resumed excavations at the Casta Hill in Amphipolis by the 28th Archaeological Commission and the monogram of Hephaestion, found in 2015, give more interest and novelty to the person of Alexander’s best friend and provide the opportunity to continue studying the personality in additional aspects.


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How to Cite
Baulina, K. (2021). Strengthening of Hephaestion Titulary and ‘Hazarapat’ Position Concept in Alexander the Great Empire. Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (2(34), 180-189.
World History and International Relations