Amphorae of Roman Time from Excavations at Settlement on Berezan Island (in Collection of Odesa Archaeological Museum of NAS of Ukraine)

Keywords: transport amphorae, Roman time, settlement, Berezan island, trade relations

Abstract

The author presents the finds of amphorae of the Roman time, which were found on the island of Berezan. Materials that are introduced into scientific circulation are stored in the depositaries of the Odesa Archaeological Museum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. They are mainly represented by fragments of amphorae, which were found as a result of the work of archaeological expeditions headed by M.F. Boltenko (1927, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1946) and V.V. Lapin (1960, 1961) at Berezan settlement. Some of the finds also came from the island of Berezan, but the year and place of their finding are unknown.

A comprehensive study of amphorae fragments gives the opportunity to reconstruct the trade relations of the settlement, which was located on the island of Berezan in the first centuries AD. Products in transport amphorae appeared on the island in the early Roman time. Thus, in amphorae of type Vnukov S І, dating no later than the first third of the 2nd century AD, Heraclean wine, made according to Coan recipe, was imported. Subsequently, the products of Heraclea Pontica sporadically came in amphorae of variant Vnukov S IVC.

The peak of trade activity of the settlement was attained in the end of the 2nd – the middle of the 3rd century AD. The range of products imported in transport wares during that period was rather wide. Heraclean wine was imported in large quantities (in amphorae of variant Vnukov S IVD) as opposed to much lesser quantities of the Aegean wine (in vessels of type Kapitän II) and Cilicia wine (in amphora of type Agora G 199). Probably, there was wine in amphora of type Zeest 72 or Zeest 73, which came to the island from an unidentified production site.

Bosporus ‘salsamentum’, which had been very popular among the inhabitants of Berezan settlement since the end of the 2nd century AD was transported in amphorae of type Zeest 75 (variants A, C, D), and from the beginning of the 3rd century AD, also in a rather rare container of type Krapivina 27 (variants ‘a’ and ‘b’). Salted fish was also imported from the non-localized center in vessels of variant Zeest 75B. In addition, a small amount of purchased olive oil was imported in amphorae of type Zeest 80 from several production sites located in the Aegean and the Black Sea regions. Single items represent variants of amphorae that cannot be correlated with already known types.

In Berezan collection of the Odesa Archaeological Museum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, no ceramic containers were found, which could be dated only later than 264. However, vessels of types Zeest 72 and Kapitän II could come to Berezan in the 4th century AD.

References

Abramov, А.P. (1993). Antichnye amfory. Periodizatsiia i khronologiia [Antique amphorae. Periodization and chronology]. Bosporskii sbornik, 3, 4-135 [in Russian].

Arsen’yeva, T.M., & Naumenko, S.A. (1992). Usad’by Tanaisa [Manors of Tanais]. Moskva: IA RAN [in Russian].

Auriemma, R., & Quiri, E. (2006). Importazioni di anfore orientali nel Salento tra primo e medio Impero. In Les routes de l’Adriatique antique: géographie et économie. Actes de la table ronde du 18 au 22 septembre 2001 (Zadar). (pp. 225-251). Bordeaux, Zadar, Paris: Presses universitaires de Zadar; De Boccard [in Italian].

Вezeczky, T. (2013). The amphorae of Roman Ephesus. Forschungen in Ephesos. XV/1. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften [in English].

Chistov, D.Е. (2006). Raboty na ostrove Berezan arkheologicheskoi ekspeditsii Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha v 2004 g. [Works on the Berezan Island by the archaeological expedition of the State Hermitage in 2004]. Materialy Berezanskoi Nizhnebugskoi antichnoi arkheologicheskoi ekspeditsii Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. T. 1. (57-112). Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatelstvo Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha [in Russian].

Dyczek, P. (2001). Roman amphorae of the 1st–3rd centuries AD found on the Lower Danube. Typology. Warszaw: Wydawnictwa Universytetu Warszawskiego [in English].

Dzyhovskyi, О.М., & Masiuta, D.О. (2020). Amforna tara z sarmatskykh pokhovalnykh pam’iatok Budzhaka (ostannia tretyna II-III st. n.e.) [Transport Amphorae from the Sarmatian Burial Grounds of Budjak (the last third of 2nd – 3rd c. A.D.)]. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 3 (36), 285-296. DOI: 10.37445/adiu.2020.03.18 [in Ukrainian].

Golofast, L.А. (2010). Amfornaia tara iz raskopok zolnika rimskogo vremeni u podnozhiia gory Mitridat v Kerchi [Amphorae from the Roman Cinder Heap Uncovered at the Foot of Mithridates Mount in Kerch]. Materialy po arkheologii istorii i etnografii Tavrii, XVI, 82-139 [in Russian].

Hayes, J.W. (1983). The villa Dionysos excavations, Knossos: The pottery. Annual of the British School at Athens, 78, 97-169 [in English].

Ivanova, O.S. (2011). Uzkogorlye svetloglinianye amfory iz raskopok Mangupa [Light-clay Amphorae with a Narrow Neck from Mangup Complexes]. Materialy po arkheologii istorii i etnografii Tavrii, XVІI, 266-327 [in Russian].

Ivanova, O.S. (2013). Amfory pozdnerimskogo vremeni iz raskopok Mangupa [The Amphorae from the Late Roman Period Excavated in Mangup]. Krym v sarmatskuiu epokhu (II v. do n.e. – IV v. n.e.). (pp. 93-154). Simferopol-Bakhchisarai: Dolia [in Russian].

Il’yashenko, S.M. (2013). Standartnyye dipinti na uzkogorlykh svetloglinyanykh amforakh Tanaisa i ego okrugi III-IV vv. n.e. [Standard dipinti on narrow-necked light clay amphorae from Tanais and its vicinity in the 3rd-4th centuries AD]. Bosporskiye issledovaniya, ХХІХ [in Russian].

Kelemen, M.H. (1990). Roman amphorae in Pannonia IIІ. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, XLІ, 143-193 [in English].

Khalvashi, M. (2010). Roman Amphorae from Gonio-Apsarus / Production and Trade of Amphorae in the Black Sea. PATABS I: Actes de la Table Ronde internationale de Batoumi et Trabzon, 27-29 Avril 2006. Varia Anatolica, ХХІ, (pp. 33–34). Istanbul-Paris [in English].

Klenina, E.Yu. (2004). Keramicheskie sosudy ІІ-ІІІ vv. n.e. iz usadby “Bliznetsy” (Khora Khersonesa Tavricheskogo) [Ceramic Vessels from the 2nd – 3rd Centuries in the Villa Rustica «Bliznetsy» (The Chora of Tauric Chersonesos)]. Poznan: Instytyt Historii Uniwersytetu im. A. Mickiewicza [in Russian].

Klenina, E. (2015). Amphorae of the 1st century BC – 4th century AD from Chersonesos Taurica: the issue of trade relations. Per Terram, Per Mare. Seaborne Trade and the Distribution of Roman Amphorae in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean archaeology and literature. Pocket-book. 180. (рр. 79-97). Uppsala: Åströms förlag [in English].

Krapivina, V.V. (1993). Ol’viya. Material’naya kul’tura I-IV vv. n.e. [Olbia. The material culture of the 1st-4th centuries AD]. Kiev: Naukova dumka [in Russian].

Krapivina, V. (2010). Amphorae of the 3rd-4th centuries A.D. in Olbia Pontica. Production and Trade of Amphorae in the Black Sea. PATABS I: Actes de la Table Ronde internationale de Batoumi et Trabzon, 27-29 Avril 2006. Varia Anatolica, ХХІ, (pp. 69-73). Istanbul-Paris [in English].

Ksenofontova, I.V. (1984). Keramika pervykh vekov n e iz raskopok poseleniia na ostrove Berezan (po materialam Ermitazha) [Pottery of the Fist Centuries AD from Excavations on Berezan Island (According to Materials of the State Hermitage)]. Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, XXIV, 138-146 [in Russian].

Lund, J. (2007). The Circulation of Ceramic Fine Wares and Transport Amphorae from the Black Sea Region in the Mediterranean, c. 400 BC – AD 200. The Black Sea in antiquity: Regional and interregional economic exchanges. Black Sea Studies. 6. (рр. 183-193). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press [in English].

Masyuta, D.А. (2009). Amfory gorodishcha Alma-Kermen [Amphorae from Alma-Kermen Settlement]. ODYSSOS: Aktualni problemy istorii, arkheolohii ta etnolohii. (pp. 27-29). Odessa [in Russian].

Masiuta, D.А. (2019). Amfory tipa 27 po klassifikatsii V.V. Krapivinoi iz Tiry [Type 27 Amphorae from Tyras According to V.V. Krapivina’s Classification]. Емінак, 1 (25), 138-148. DOI: 10.33782/eminak2019.1(25).215 [in Russian].

Naumenko, S.A. (2012). Sostav amfor v zakrytykh kompleksakh Tanaisa kontsa I – serediny III vv. n.e. [The composition of amphorae in closed complexes of Tanais of the end of the 1st – the middle of the 3rd centuries AD]. Vestnik Tanaisa, 3, 63-88 [in Russian].

Nazarov, V.V. (1997). V.V. Lapin yak doslidnyk antychnoi Berezani [V.V. Lapin as a researcher of ancient Berezan]. Arkheolohiia, 4, 134-140 [in Ukrainian].

Novoselova, N.Yu. (2012). Berezanskoe poselenie v pervykh vekakh novoi ery [Berezan settlement in the first centuries of the new era]. Materialy Berezanskoi Nizhnebugskoi antichnoi arkheologicheskoi ekspeditsii Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. T. 2. Issledovaniia na ostrove Berezan v 2005-2009 gg. (57-112). Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatelstvo Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha [in Russian].

Opaiţ, A. (2004). Local and Imported Ceramics in the Roman Province of Scythia (4th-6th centuries AD). BAR International Series, 1274 [in English].

Opaiţ, A. (2007). A weighty matter: pontic fish amphorae. The Black Sea in antiquity: Regional and interregional economic exchanges. Black Sea Studies, 6, (рр. 101-122). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press [in English].

Opaiţ, A. (2010). Pontic Wine in the Athenian Market. In Keramikí tis Ýsteris Archaiótitas apó ton elladikó chóro (3os-7os ai. m.Ch.): epistimonikí synántisi, Thessaloníki, 12-16 Noemvríou 2006, (pp. 108-130). Thessaloníkis: Archaiologikó Institoúto Makedonikón kai Thrakikón Spoudón [in English-Greek].

Opaiţ, A., & Paraschiv, D. (2013). On the wine, olive oil and fish supply of the countryside in Roman Dobroudja (1st – 3rd centuries AD). Production and Trade of Amphorae in the Black Sea. PATABS III. Actes de la Table Ronde internationale de Costanța, 6-10 octobre 2009, (рр. 317-333). Costanța [in English].

Panella, C. (1986). Oriente ed Occidente: considerazioni su alcune anfore «Egee» di eta imperial a Ostia. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenigue. Suppl. XIII, 609-635 [in Italian].

Paraschiv, D. (2006). Amfore romane şi romano-bizantine în zona Dunării de Jos (sec. I–VII p. Chr.). Iaşi: Editura Fundaţiei AXIS [in Romanian] .

Paraschiv, D. (2013). Les amphores romaines d’Héraclée du Pont en Dobroudja. The Bosporus: gateway between the Ancient West and East (1st Millennium BC – 5th Century AD): proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Black Sea antiquities Istanbul, 14th - 18th September 2009, (рр. 213-217). BAR International Series, 2517 [in French].

Peacock, D.P.S., & Williams, D.F. (1991). Amphorae and the Roman economy: An Introductory Guide. – London-New York: Longman [in English].

Quiri, E. (2015). Imports of eastern transport amphorae to Turin (Italy) / E. Quiri. Per Terram, Per Mare. Seaborne Trade and the Distribution of Roman Amphorae in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean archaeology and literature. Pocket-book. 180. (рр. 161–180). Uppsala: Åströms förlag [in English].

Riley, J.A. (1979). The Coarse Pottery from Berenice. Excavations at Sidi Khrebish Benghazi (Berenice). Vol. II. (рр. 91-467). Tripoli [in English].

Robinson, H.S. (1959). Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology. The Athenian Agora, V [in English].

Sazanov, А.V. (2012). Khronologiia amfor mirmekiiskogo tipa (Zeest 72 – Böttger I.5) rimskogo vremeni [The Chronology of «Myrmekion Type» Amphorae (Zeest 72 — Bottger I.5) of the Roman Period]. Drevnosti Bospora, 16, 326-353 [in Russian].

Samoylova, T.L. (1978). Osnovnye tipy amfor I – IV vv. n.e. iz Tiry [The main types of amphorae of the 1st–4th centuries AD from Tyras]. Arkheologicheskie issledovaniya Severo-Zapadnogo Prichernomor’ya. (рр. 254-266). Kiev [in Russian].

Sciallano, M., & Sibella, P. (1994). Amphores: Сomment les identifier? Aix-en-Provence: Édisud [in French].

Shelov, D.B. (1978). Uzkogorlye svetloglinianye amfory pervykh vekov nashei ery. Klassifikatsiia i khronologiia [Light-clay Narrow-necked Amphorae of the First Centuries of AD. Classification and Chronology]. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii AN SSSR, 156, 16-21 [in Russian].

Smekalova, Т.N., Koltukhov, S.G., & Zaitsev, Yu.P. (2015). Atlas pozdneskifskikh gorodishch Predgornogo Kryma [Atlas of Late Scythian Fortresses in the Crimean Foothills]. Sankt-Peterburg: Aleteyya [in Russian].

Solovyov, S.L. (1999). Ancient Berezan: The Architecture, History and Culture of the First Greek Colony in the Northern Black Sea. Colloquia Pontica, 4. Leiden: Brill [in English].

Strzheletskiy, S.F., Vysotskaya, T.N., Ryzhova, L.A., & Zhestkova, G.I. (2005). Naseleniye okrugi Khersonesa v pervoy polovine I tysyacheletiya novoy ery (po materialam nekropolya «Sovkhoz № 10») [The Population in the neighborhood of Chersonesos in the 1st millennium AD (by materials of the necropolis «Sovkhoz № 10»)]. Stratum plus, 4, 27-277 [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (1988). Shirokogorlye svetloglinianye amfory Severo-Zapadnogo Kryma [Light-clay Amphorae with Wide Necks from the North-Western Crimea]. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 3, 198-206 [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (1999). Khronologicheskie raznovidnosti svetloglinianykh amfor s dvustvolnymi ruchkami [Chronological Varieties of Light-clay Amphorae with Double-barreled Handles]. Donskaia arkheologiia, 1 (2), 43-49 [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (2000). Psevdokosskie amfory Prichernomoria [Pseudo-Koan Amphorae of the Black Sea area]. Rossiiskaia arkheologiia, 4, 54-63 [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (2003). Prichernomorskie amfory I v. do n.e. – II v. n.e. (morfologiia) [The Black Sea Amphorae of the 1st c. BC – the 2nd c. AD. (Morphology)]. Moskva: Institut arkheologii RAN [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (2006). Prichernomorskiye amfory I v. do n.e. – II v. n.e. Chast’ II. Petrografiya, khronologiya, problemy torgovli [The Black Sea amphorae of the 1st c. BC – the 2nd c. AD II: Petrography, chronology and trade questions]. Sankt-Peterburg: Aleteya [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (2013). Amfory rimskogo vremeni gorodishcha Kara-Tobe [Amphorae of the Roman Period from the Site of Kara-Tobe]. Drevnosti Bospora, 17, 21-54 [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (2013). Potreblenie vina pozdnimi skifami Severo-Zapadnogo Kryma [Wine Consumption by the Late Scythians of the North-Western Crimea]. Orientalia et Classica: Trudy Instituta vostochnykh kultur i antichnosti, L, 79-86 [in Russian].

Vnukov, S.Yu. (2016). Eshche raz o tipologii evoliutsii i khronologii svetloglinianykh (pozdnegerakleiskikh) uzkogorlykh amfor [On the Typology, Evolution and Chronology of Light-clay (Late Heraclean) Narrow-necked Amphorae]. Rossiiskaia arkheologiia, 2, 36-47 [in Russian].

Zeest, I.B. (1960). Keramicheskaya tara Bospora [Ceramic vessels of Bosporus]. Materialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR, 83 [in Russian].

Published
13.11.2021
How to Cite
MasyutaD. (2021). Amphorae of Roman Time from Excavations at Settlement on Berezan Island (in Collection of Odesa Archaeological Museum of NAS of Ukraine). Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (3(35), 84-103. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2021.3(35).544
Section
Archaelogy