Kanuns of Guild Craftsmen of Hetmanate in 18th Century
One component of everyday life of guild craftsmen of the Hetmanate in the 18th century were kanuns, which were given to the guilds as a privilege, on condition that they would magnify the Church of God. The author goals to comprehensively study the guild kanuns, and to trace the peculiarities of their implementation for craftsmen of the towns of the Hetmanate.
After examining extensive archival material in detail, it has been found out that the term ‘kanun’ was used among craftsmen in several senses: the eve of the temple guild feast; making alcohol as a component of the feast; production of alcohol before entering the guild and money payment to the guild from a new member of the fraternity; prayer, requiem service, expenses for church services, first of all making candles; commemoration of the dead relatives with special funeral dishes, which had different names: ‘kutia’, ‘syta’, ‘kolyvo’, ‘kanun’ or ‘kanunchyk’. As the components of the charitable activities of the guilds, in addition to repairing and financing the churches, there were production and donation of candles.
The main nature of the kanun among the guild craftsmen was the satiating of honey, and giving some of the money got after its sale, and candles to the church.
The charter documents of the guilds emphasize the importance of the concept of kanun as their privilege, which was given to them on condition of magnifying the Church of God. Of course, in the process of constant repetition, it acquired traditional ceremonial features and was carried out ‘according to the customary right.’
Partly, by the end of the 18th century, some of the kanun activities, such as producing alcohol and arranging dinners by new members of the guild, were gradually monetized, being replaced by cash payments in a benefit for the guild and town authorities. Some of them consolidated their hold in the professional environment, having lived through the guild system, namely rituals of making candles or the name of the funeral dish, and they were recorded ethnographically, even in the early 20th century.
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