Agricultural Training in Agricultural Educational Institutions of Kherson Hubernia in the Second Half of the 19th – early 20th century
The purpose of the research paper is to outline the general trends in the formation of agricultural training in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century within Kherson hubernia; to determine the circle of key agricultural educational institutions, their establishment, and development in the specified period; to characterize the social and age features of the student contingent.
The scientific novelty. Information on the development of agricultural training in Kherson hubernia in the pre-Soviet period is summarized; a social picture of students, which testifies to the predominantly peasant orientation of agricultural training is formed.
Conclusions. With the beginning of the Peasant Reform implementation, the problem of increasing the efficiency of agricultural production became more and more urgent, which was directly related to the spread of agronomic knowledge and the training of professional agronomists.
In the last quarter of the 19th century, the attention of progressive circles of society – zemstvo bodies, public organizations, and individuals to the development of the lower rural vocational-technical school steadily increased, and they joined their efforts to establish industry-specific educational institutions. In Kherson hubernia, zemstvos, public associations, and private initiatives played a key role in the establishment of agricultural training institutions and their further development. The state, in terms of support and development of agricultural training, acted mostly as one of the investors, regulator, and controlling body, playing a secondary role in their initiation.
Despite the constant lack of funds, weak educational and methodological, didactic, and organizational and legal framework, agricultural educational institutions made a significant contribution to the formation of the system of training the qualified personnel potential for the region’s agriculture. In addition, the newly established institutions made a certain contribution to scientific research in the agricultural sector, helped in the organization of fields for crop samples, introduced new crops, started new gardens, vineyards, etc.
Agricultural educational institutions also played a certain role in public awareness. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became traditional to hold various courses on their basis (for agronomists, teachers, peasants, etc.) with the teaching of agricultural knowledge; and the Society for the Spread of Enlightenment among the Jews of Russia sent teachers of Jewish schools to Novopoltavka “to familiarize themselves with the organization of natural science education”.
Funding. The study was prepared based on the results of fundamental research “The Socio-cultural Space of Ukraine in the Second Half of the Nineteenth – First Third of the Twentieth Century: the Peasant-centric Dimension” (state registration number: 0123U101600) with the support of the National Research Foundation Fund of Ukraine.
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