The Main Vectors of the Foreign Policy of the ZUNR (1918-1923) and the Formation of the Diplomatic Service
The paper deals with the activity of the foreign policy service of the Western Ukrainian National Republic in 1918-1923. This research also covers diplomatic relations with the countries of Europe and North America.
The aim of this work is to study the specific historical conditions of the development of the Western Ukrainian National Republic diplomatic activity in 1918-1923; to clarify the peculiarities of relations with the Ukrainian National Republic, the Denikin’s army, the Bolsheviks and the Entente countries; to determine the place and role of foreign policy in solving the issue of international recognition of the ZUNR.
It is noted that Galician diplomacy, on its side, relying on the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson, sent notes about the establishment of an independent state and the Polish aggression against it. Subsequently, a conception of so-called Switzerland from the East emerged, according to which the neutral Eastern Galicia had to play a role of Switzerland in Eastern Europe.
Special attention is paid to the fact that the diplomatic activities of the Western Ukrainian National Republic Government particularly intensified since November 1920 when the session of the League of Nations began in Geneva. On November 28, the Ukrainian delegation advanced the following claims to its presidium: to recognize the Eastern Galicia right of national self-determination, to eliminate the Polish occupation of the region, and so on. The Western Ukrainian Association for the League of Nations, established on January 1922, and the Government of the ZUNR during 1922-1923 sent many more memos, protests, appeals, resolutions to the International Congresses and Organizations, but they were not taken into account by the strong of this world.
It has been clarified that the internal weakness and non-viability of the ZUNR did not give the West enough time to realize the possible role and place of Ukraine in Europe. Mistakes were made by the ZUNR government as well. Under the conditions of the internal weakness of the Ukrainian national liberation movement, much had been dependent on the external recognition and support of Ukraine. On the other hand, the international recognition of the ZUNR independence was determined by the internal strengthening and establishment of Ukrainian statehood.